• Dr. Muqarrab Akbar
  • Syed Hussain Murtaza
  • Dr. Rafida Nawaz


Pakistan is a mosaic of tradition, history, value, and natural local. All these natural and cultural attributes make it a tourist attraction. The country, like other growing economies, has to face the challenges of economic growth accompanied by environmental hazards. Furthermore, the sway of development challenges is causing a loss to natural, cultural, and historical heritage sites. Many traditional occupations and local artifacts have become history. The argument of the paper surrounds the supposition that conservation of local areas in collaboration with Public, Private, and community participation not only helps the communities to preserve their natural and cultural milieu giving them a sense of pride, belonging, and inclusion but also positively contribute to economic growth. The analytical method is opted to evaluate the impacts of conservationism on tourism industry, local community, and natural habitat. The study is comparative in nature drawing parallels between the mountainous tourist destination of Hunza with Agri-planes of Multan by employing the technique of MDSO (Most Different Similar Outcomes). The study aims to address the question that is the Right Based approach to conservation can be an apt policy to bring commensurability between two apparently different objectives, i.e., economic development and environmental conservation. Taking the Hunza as an exemplary case study, the main finding of the paper is that by opting for policy conservation with help of traditional/ local knowledge and community participation the goal of sustainable development can be achieved.

Author Biographies

Dr. Muqarrab Akbar

Prof. Dr. Muqarrab Akbar is Professor of Political Science & International Relations Bahauddin Zakariya University and Chairman Department of Political Science Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan.

Syed Hussain Murtaza

Syed Hussain Murtaza is PhD Scholar Department of political Science Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.

Dr. Rafida Nawaz

Dr. Rafida Nawaz is Assistant Professor International Relations at Department of Political Science Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.


Berkes, F. (1993). Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Perspective. In J. T. Inglis, Traditional Ecological Knowledge Concepts and Cases (pp. 1-10). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Dawn. (2021, 6 27). https://www.dawn. com/news/1631783

Erder, E. H., Gürsan-Salzmann, A., & Miller, N. F. (2013). A Conservation Management Plan for Gordion and its Environs. Conservation and Management of Arch. Sites, 329-47.

Gadgil, M., Berkes, F., & Folke, C. (1993). Indigenous Knowledge for Biodiversity Conservation. Biodiversity: Ecology, Economics, Policy, 151-156.

Hanks, J. (1984). Conservation and Rural Development: Towards an Integrated Approch. The Environmentalist, 60-67.

Hasan, A., & Hamza, A. (2018). Pakistan: the Causes and Repercussions of the Housing Crisis. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.

Hrenchuk, C. (1993). Native Land Use and Common Property: Whose Common? In J. T. Inglis, Traditional Ecological Knowledge Concepts and Cases (pp. 69-86). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Hussain, A., Qamar, F. M., Adhikari, L., Hunzai, A. I., Rehman, A. u., & Bano, K. (2021). Climate Change, Mountain Food Systems, and Emerging Opportunities: A Study from the Hindu Kush Karakoram Pamir Landscape, Pakistan. Sustainability, 1-27.

Israr, M., Shafi , M. M., Khan , N., Ahmad, N., Baig, S., & Khan, Z. H. (2009). Eco Tourism In Northern Pakistan and Challenges Perspective of Stakeholders.

Sarhad J. Agric., 113-120. Johnson, M. (1992). Lore. Capturing Traditional Environmental Knowledge. Ottawa: Dene Cultural Institute/International Development Research Centre.

Karim, R., Muhammad, F., Din, N. u., & Alam, M. (2013). Eco-tourists as Pro-environmental Tourists: A Case of the Hunza Valley, Mountainous Area of Pakistan. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 44-52.

Köpke, S. (2021). Contested Conservation, Ethnopolitics, and the State: The Case of Wilpattu Forest Complex, Sri Lanka. Conservation and Society, 57-67.

Kreutzmann, H. (2006). Karakoram in Transition: Culture, Development and Ecology in the Hunza Valley. Oxford Univeristy Press : Karachi.

Lalonde, A. (1993). African Indigenous Knowledge and its Relevance to Sustainable Development. In J. T. Inglis, Traditional Ecological Knowledge Concepts and Cases (pp. 55-62). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Latif, A. (2021, 03 29). Pakistan’s Rising Housing Crunch Devours Fertile Land. Trend of large once green swathes of land turned into concrete jungles in recent years has environmentalists concerned. Ankara: Anadolu Agency.

Meffe, G. K., Nielsen, L. A., Knight, R. L., & Schenborn, D. A. (2002). Ecosystem Management: Adaptive, Community-Based Conservation. London: Island Press.

Miguel, F., David, H. R., & Palis , F. G. (2018). Food security and the environment: Interdisciplinary research to increase productivity while exercising environmental conservation. Global Food Security, 127-132.

Moffett, L. A. (1974). Conservationism toward the natural environment, Psychological Reports, 778.

N. u., Yaqub, A., Amin, G., Khan, I., Faridullah, Ajab. H., Zeb, I. & Ahmed, D. (2019). The impact of tourism on local communities and their environment in Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan: a local community perspective. Environmental & Socio-Economic Studies, 24-37.

Naughton-Treves, L., Holland, M., & Brandon, K. (2005). The Role of Protected Areas in Conserving Biodiversity and Sustaining Local Livelihoods. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 219-252.

Nayak, D., Puri , B., & Upadhyay, V. (2018). Recognising Conservationism of the Poor’ Towards Holistic Sustainability: Study of an Indian National Park. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, 230-261.

Pakistan Tourism News. (2021, 08 15). Rasul, G., & Hussain, A. (2015). Sustainable Food Security in the Mountains of Pakistan: Towards a Policy Framework. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 625-643.

Ruddle, K. (1993). The Transmission of Traditional Ecological Knowledge. In J. T. Inglis, Traditional Ecological Knowledge Concepts and Cases (pp. 10-17). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Sheikh, K., Ahmad, T., & Khan, M. (2002). Use, exploitation and prospects for conservation: people and plant biodiversity of Naltar Valley, northwestern Karakorums, Pakistan. Biodiversity and Conservation, 715-742. doi:

Spies, M. (2018). Changing Food Systems and Their Resilience in the Karakoram Mountains of Northern Pakistan: A Case Study of Nagar. Mountain Research and Development, 299-309.

Steinmetz, J. (n.d.). Politics, Power, and Purpose: An Orientation to Political Science. Hays: Fort Hays State University. https://fhsu.pressbooks. pub/orientationpolisci/chapter/chapter-9-public-law-and-pre-law-training/

Syed, R. A. (2000). The potential of ecotourism in Hunza Valley Pakistan. Dissertation (Masters). Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil: Federal University of Santa Catarina, Technological Center.

Tisdell, C. A. (2005). Economics of Environmental Conservation. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Tobias, T. (1993). Stereotyped Village Economies and the Pinehouse Harvest Research. In J. T. Inglis, Traditional Ecological Knowledge Concepts and Cases (pp. 87-98). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our Common Future. New York: United Nations. (2020, 11 26). Retrieved from organic-farming

Zweifel, H. (2021). The Gendered Nature of Biodiversity Conservation. NWSA Journal, 107-123

Additional Files