• Victoria Joseph
  • Najmonnisa Khan


The current study was intended to ascertain the impacts of DLT on students’ communication skills. The study was conducted by using an experimental research design. The population of the study comprised of grade VIII students’ and English language teachers’ of adopted public schools of Karachi while sample size consisted of ninety grade VIII students and two English language teachers. Quasi-experimental research design was selected for the study with 45 each in control and the treatment group. the treatment group students were given treatment by teaching through DLT while the lecture method of teaching was applied to control group students. A test was administered to all students before and after intervention. Independent t-test was used for data analysis. The post-test results revealed that the treatment group students were able to produce good results comparing to the control group students in both reading and writing skills. Researcher suggested practical implication for teachers to use DLT, TPACK and theories such as UTAUT, socially shared cognition, social cognitive for better teaching learning process. Future researches on students’ satisfaction of using DLT, qualitative study on teachers usage of DLT, a large sample study on DLT with multi-grade level students, study with lower and higher socio-economic group, a study for comparing the results of district standardised tests with provincial standardised tests were also recommended.

Author Biographies

Victoria Joseph

Victoria Joseph is a research scholar at SZABIST and pursuing her Ph.D. degree in Education. Her email address is Victoria.v.joseph63@gmail.com

Najmonnisa Khan

Dr. Najmonnisa Khan is working as an HoD, in the Department of Education in SZABIST. Her email address is dr.najmonnisa@szabist.edu.pk


Abbas, Q., Hussain, S., & Rasool, S. (2019). Digital literacy effect on the academic performance of students at higher education level in Pakistan. Global Social Sciences Review, 4(1), 154-165.

Abu-Hardan, F., Al-Jamal, D. A., & Sa’di, I. T. (2019). TPACK: Time to be considered in teaching reading. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 18(6), 68-95.

Aftab, A. (2011). English language textbooks evaluation in Pakistan (Doctoral thesis). University of Birmingham. Retrieved June 20, 2015, from http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/3454/1/Aftab12PhD.pdf [Google Scholar]

Ahmad, I., ur Rehman, S., Ali, S. I. S., Ali, F., & Badshah, R. (2013). Problems of government secondary school system in Pakistan: Critical analysis of literature and finding a way forward. International journal of academic research in business and social sciences, 3(2), 85.

Ahmad, N. (2011). Analyzing the Spoken English Needs in Pakistani Academic Legal Settings. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS), 31(2).

Ahmad. H., (2020). Definitions of communication: Research Gate.

Ahmad., N. & Khan., F.N, ( 2103).Factors Affecting the Learning of English of Seondary School Level in KPK. Pakistan.Research Gate.

Ahmadi, D., & Reza, M. (2018). The use of technology in English language learning: A literature review. International Journal of Research in English Education, 3(2), 115-125.

Ahmadi.,M.,A. (2018). The Use of Technology in English Language Learning: International Journal of Research in English Education.

Akbari & Razavi (2016). Using authentic materials in the foreign language classrooms: Teachers’ perspectives in EFL classes. International Journal of Research Studies in Education. Vol.5 (2).

Akhtar, R. N., & Hussain, N. (2019). Testing ERE cycle in teaching business communication courses: Experiential learning strategies. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 6(1), 62-77.

Akram, H., Malik, S., & Jumani, N. B. (2021). Comparison of the Knowledge of Technology, Pedagogy and Content of Educators at Secondary Level. sjesr, 4(1), 164-171.

Alam, M. (2012). Assessment of Oral Skills Development among the Students of Master in Education in the Public Sector Universities of Punjab. Unpublished thesis Master of Philosophy, University of Sargodha Sargodha.

Alam, Q. (2012). Improving English oral communication skills of grades-6 students in public school Karachi, Pakistan.

Alan G. Kamhi.A.,G & Catts, .,H.,W.,(2012). Language and Reading Disabilities, 3rd Edition.

Al-Busaidi, S., & Al-Seyabi, F. (2021). Project-based learning as a tool for student- teachers’ professional development: A study in an Omani EFL teacher education program. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 20(4), 116-136.

Alcantud-Díaz, M., & Gregori-Signes, C. (2014). Audiobooks: improving fluency and instilling literary skills and education for development.

Alexandrovna, S. T. (2018, October). The role of distance educational technologies in the development of educational programmes in a network form: Experience and relevant problems. In 2018 IV International Conference on Information Technologies in Engineering Education (Inforino) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Alharbi, M. A. (2019). Integration of video in teaching grammar to EFL Arab learners. CALL-EJ, 20 (1), 135-153.

Ali, Q. (2013). Helping an ELT teacher in assessing students’ speaking skills: An action research.

Ali, Z., & Azhar, S. (2018). Are we there yet? Technology integration in English language teaching in Balochsitan, Pakistan. Journal of Education & Humanities Research, 6(2), 270-285.

Ali, Z., Thomas, M., & Hamid, S. (2020). Teacher Educators’ Perception Of Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge On Their Classroom Teaching. New Horizons (1992-4399), 14(2).

Ali., Z.,(2018).Are we there yet? Technology Integration in English Language Teaching in Balochistan, Pakistan:.Research Gate

Al-Jarf, R. (2022). Blogging about The Covid-19 Pandemic in EFL Writing Courses. Journal of Learning and Development Studies, 2(1), 01- 08.

Alkhamis, H. I. (2014). Implementing iPad apps for elementary language arts students.

Alqahtani, S. S. (2020). Technology-based interventions for children with reading difficulties: a literature review from 2010 to 2020. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(6), 3495- 3525.

Alsancak Sirakaya, D., & Ozdemir, S. (2018). The Effect of a Flipped Classroom Model on Academic Achievement, Self-Directed Learning Readiness, Motivation and Retention. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 6(1), 76-91.

Altun, T, & Akyildiz, S. (2017). Investigating Student Teachers’Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Levels Based on Some Variables. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(5), 467-485. Retrieved from www.oapub.org/edu. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.555996

Amalia, R. R., Anggoro, S., & Eka, K. I. (2021). Identification of Teachers and Students’ Readiness to E-Learning Implementation. Journal Of Teaching And Learning In Elementary Education (Jtlee), 4(2), 170- 179.

Ammade, S., Mahmud, M., Jabu, B., & Tahmir, S. (2020). TPACK model based instruction in teaching writing: An analysis on TPACK literacy. International Journal of Language Education, 4(1), 129- 140.

Asemanyi, A. A. (2015). An Assessment of Students’ Performance in Communication Skills: A Case Study of the University of Education Winneba. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(35), 1-7.

Barltrop.,M (2018) Digital Literacy Tools: An Introduction: https:// whatbinder.com/2018/05/28/digitalliteracy-tools-introduction/

Bennett, J. G., Gardner, R., III., Cartledge, G., Ramnath, R., & Council, M. R., III. (2017). Second-grade urban learners: preliminary fndings for a computer-assisted, culturally relevant, repeated reading intervention. Education and Treatment of Children, 40(2), 145–185. https://doi.org/10.1353/ etc.2017.0008

Catalano.,F.,(2018).Listen up: Digital audiobooks now the ‘fastest growing format’ as tech and titles improve:https://www.geekwire.com/2018/ listen-digital- audiobooks-now-fastest-growing-format-tech-titles- improve

Catts, H. W., Kamhi, A. G., & Adlof, S. M. (2012). Defining and classifying reading disabilities. Language and reading disabilities, 45-111.

Çeçen, G. (2020). Tertiary level EFL students’ perceptions regarding the use of Edmodo, Quizlet, and Canva within technology acceptance model (Tam) (Doctoral dissertation, Bilkent University).

Chang, C. S., Liu, E. Z. F., Sung, H. Y., Lin, C. H., Chen, N. S., & Cheng, S.S. (2014). Effects of online college student’s Internet self-efficacy on learning motivation and performance. Innovations in education and teaching international, 51(4), 366-377.

Chu, S. K. W., Reynolds, R. B., Tavares, N. J., Notari, M., & Lee, C. W. Y. (2021). 21st century skills development through inquiry-based learning from theory to practice. Springer International Publishing.

Cuic Tankovic, A., Kapeš, J., & Benazić, D. (2022). Communication skills in generation Z as future tourism employees. Communication Research and Practice, 1-17.

Cuskley, C., Roberts, S. G., Politzer-Ahles, S., & Verhoef, T. (2020). Double- blind reviewing and gender biases at EvoLang conferences: An update. Journal of Language Evolution, 5(1), 92-99.

Dar, M. F., & Khan, I. (2015). Writing anxiety among public and private sectors Pakistani undergraduate university students. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies, 10(1), 157-172.

Dobbs, J., & Arnold, D. H. (2009). Relationship Between Preschool Teachers’ Reports of children’s behavior and their behavior toward those children. School Psychology Quarterly, 24(2).

Fareed.,M., Jawed.,S.,& Awan.,S (2018). Teaching English Language at SSC Level in Private Non-Elite Schools in Pakistan: Practices and Problems: Journal of Education and Educational Development. Vol.5(1). file:///C:/Users/Lenovo/Downloads/1756 7818-1-PB.pdf

Farooq, M. S., Uzair-Ul-Hassan, M., & Wahid, S. (2020). Opinion of second language learners about writing difficulties in English language. South Asian Studies, 27(1). file:///C:/Users/Lenovo/ Downloads/Paper+(2022.2.1)+Blogging+about+The+Covi d-19+Pandemic+in+EFL+Writing+Courses.pdf

Heick., T.(2019). 4 Principles Of Digital Literacy: Teach Thought we Grow Teachers.

Hinkel, E., & Fotos, S. (2002). From theory to practice: A teacher’s view. New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms, 1-12.

Ihmeideh,F.M, Omari,A.A. Dababneh,K.A, (2010). Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students’-Teachers’ in Jordanian Public Universities>Australian Journal of Teacher Education. Vol.35(4).

Jacobs, G. (2010). Academic controversy: A cooperative way to debate. Intercultural Education, 21(3. P. 291-296.)

Keyser, E. A., Casablanca, Y., & Hope, E. (2021). Mandatory HPV vaccination; opportunity to save lives, improve readiness and cut costs. Military medicine, 186(11-12), 305-308.

Kochhar-Bryant, C.A., & Heishman, A. (Eds.). (2010). Effective collaboration for educating the whole child. Corwin Press.

Koehler, M., Mishra, P., & Cain, W. (2013). What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)? The Journal of Education, 193(3), 13- 19. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.lib.monash. edu.au/stable/24636917

Korkmaz, S., Öz, H. (2021). Using Kahoot to improve reading comprehension of English as a foreign language learners. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 8(2). 1138-1150.

Kulavuz-Onal, D. (2018). Technology in instruction. The TESOLencyclopedia of English language teaching, 1-12.

Lee, S., & Schmidgall, J. (2020). The Importance of English Writing Skills in the International Workplace. Research Memorandum. ETS RM- 20-07. Educational Testing Service.

Levy, L. (2018). 7 Reasons Why Digital Literacy is Important for Teachers. Rossieronline.usc.edu. Retrieved 25 July 2018.

Ludwig, L., & Mayrberger, K. (2012, June). Next Generation Learning? Learning with Tablets as an example for the implementation of digital media in schools. In EdMedia+ Innovate Learning (pp. 2179-2187). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Mah.,G., Hu., & Yang., (2020). T1 - Digital technology use and early reading abilities among bilingual children in Singapore JO - Policy Futures in Education.Vol. 19(1).

Mardiana, H. (2021). Lecturers in Adopting Digital Literacy towards Innovation Technological Change. Zien Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(1), 36- 48.

Mashburn, A. J., Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., Downer, J. T., Barbarin, O. A., Bryant, D., ... & Howes, C. (2008). Measures of classroom quality in prekindergarten and children’s development of academic, language, and social skills. Child development, 79(3), 732-749.

Mishra, P. & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. Retrieved August 20, 2021 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/99246/.

Mize, M., Bryant, D. P., & Bryant, B. R. (2019). Teaching reading to students with learning disabilities: Effects of combined iPad-assisted and peer-assisted instruction on oral reading fluency performance. Assistive Technology.

Moats, L. (2014). What teachers don’t know and why they aren’t learning it: Addressing the need for content and pedagogy in teacher education. Australian Journal of learning difficulties, 19(2), 75-91.

Pritchard,.R & OćHara,. S., (2009). Stanford University California State University, Sacramento Vocabulary Development in the Science Classroom: Using Hypermedia Authoring to Support English Learners

Rehman, H., & Khan, N. (2011). Flaws in Pakistan’s Educational System.Abasyn University Journal of Social Sciences, 4(1).

Sadeghi.,b., Ramin Rahmany., & Doosti.,(2014). L2 Teachers’ Reasons and Perceptions for Using or Not Using Computer Mediated Communication Tools in Their Classroom: Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 5(3. P. 663-673).

Sadiku, L. M. (2015). The importance of four skills reading, speaking, writing, listening in a lesson hour. European Journal of Language and Literature, 1(1), 29-31.

Saeedi, Z., & Biri, A. (2016). The application of technology in teaching grammar to EFL learners: The role of animated sitcoms. Teaching English with Technology, 16(2), 18-39.

Sage, K., Piazzini, M., Downey, J. C., & Ewing, S. (2020). Flip it or click it: Equivalent learning of vocabulary from paper, laptop, and smartphone flashcards. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 0(0), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1177% 2F0047239520943647

Sharma, G. (2017). Pros and cons of different sampling techniques.

International journal of applied research, 3(7), 749-752.

Sherman, J. (2003). Using authentic video in the language classroom. Ernst Klett Sprachen

Solanki D. Shyamlee.(2012) “Use of Technology in English Language Teaching and Learning”: An Analysis. International Conference on Language, Medias and Culture: Vol .33.

Sword, R. (2020). Effective Communication in the Classroom: Skills for Teachers. Message posted to https://www. highspeedtraining. co. uk.

Umutlu, D., & Akpinar, Y. (2020). Effects of different video modalities on writing achievement in flipped english classes. Contemporary Educational Technology, 12(2).

Wang, J., Yu, W., & Wu, E. (2013). Empowering mobile assisted social e-learning: Students’ expectations and perceptions. World Journal of Education, 3(2). doi:10.5430/wje.v3n2p59

Xie, J., Shuai, B., Hu, J. F., Lin, J., & Zheng, W. S. (2018). Improving fast segmentation with teacher-student learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.08476.

Yu, M. (2013). Teaching grammar using focus on form approach in communicative language teaching for Korean middle school students (Doctoral dissertation).

Yunus.,M.,M., , Nordin.N.,1 ,Salehi., H.,&, Sun.,C.,H.,& Embi.,M.,A.,(2013). Pros and Cons of Using ICT in Teaching ESL Reading and Writing International Education Studies; Vol. 6(7). https://files.eric.ed.gov/ fulltext/EJ1068565.pdf

Zhang, C. (2013). Effect of instruction on ESL students’ synthesis writing. Journal of second language writing, 22(1), 51-67.

Additional Files