ROLE OF SPORTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HARD WORK AS A LIFE SKILL - FORMER ATHLETES’ PERSPECTIVES

Authors

  • Tasleem Arif
  • Dr. Salahuddin Khan
  • Wasim Khan

Keywords:

Sports Development, Hard Work Ethics, Former Athletes Perspectives

Abstract

The current study was an attempt to assess the perception of government servants in the community of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan, as to assess the role of sports in the development of hard work ethics. The population of this study comprised of doctors (33), engineers (25), and teachers (67) who had participated in sporting activities in their student lives. The researchers used a purposive sampling (snowball sampling) technique to identify appropriate participants to complete a researcher’s developed, self-administered structured questionnaire. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The formulated hypotheses were tested at a significant level of .05. The findings revealed that participants believed that participation in sports developed the quality of hard work (.000<.05). No gender or category wise differences were found pertaining to the role of sports in the development of quality of hard work (679>.05 & .082>.05). The ability to “work hard” was identified by the stakeholders as being a significant life skill for success in Pakistan, along with a clear perception that participating in sport would help develop this ability. The findings of this study will enhance and encourage the interest of medical, engineering, and general students towards sports participation in order to be successful as well as to advance their profession (doctors, engineers, and teachers).

Author Biographies

Tasleem Arif

Tasleem Arif is currently pursuing his PhD from the Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education at the Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Mr. Arif is an avid researcher and has a vast experience of teaching Sports Management subjects at university level. He can be contacted via email at tasleemarif12345@gmail.com

Dr. Salahuddin Khan

Dr. Salahuddin khan is Professor in the Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education at the Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Dr. Khan is a distinguished Professor and has supervised a number of PhD students. His email is drsalahuddinkhan@yahoo.com

Wasim Khan

Wasim khan is currently working as Lecturer in the Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education at the Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. He can be contacted through email at wasimkhan2057@gmail.com

References

Adachi, P. J., & Willoughby, T. (2016). Does playing sports video games
predict increased involvement in real-life sports over several
years among older adolescents and emerging adults? Journal of
Youth and Adolescence, 45(2), 391-401.

Allen. G. (2013). From the Sports Hall into the Classroom: Learning Life
Skills through Sport (Dissertation). School of Sport and
Education, Brunel University.

Baird, J. D. (2018). Mediating effects of perceived coaching behaviors on
an adolescent athlete’s self-esteem (Doctoral dissertation, Alliant
International University).

Bean, C., Kramers, S., Forneris, T., & Camiré, M. (2018). The
implicit/explicit continuum of life skills development and
transfer. Quest, 70(4), 456-470.

Brunelle, J., Danish, S. J., & Forneris, T. (2007). The impact of a sportbased
life skills program on adolescent prosocial values. Applied
Developmental Science, 11(1), 43-55.

Camiré, M., & Pierre, T. (2013). Using high school football to promote
life skills and student engagement: Perspectives from Canadian
coaches and students.

Camiré, M., Trudel, P., & Forneris, T. (2009). High school athletes’ perspectives
on support, communication, negotiation, and life skill development.
Qualitative Research In Sport and Exercise, 1(1), 72-88.

Carreres-Ponsoda, F., Escarti, A., Cortell-Tormo, J. M., Fuster-Lloret, V.,
& Andreu-Cabrera, E. (2012). The relationship between out-ofschool
sport participation and positive youth development.
Journal of Human Sports & Exercise, 7, 671–683.

Côté, J., & Fraser-Thomas, J. (2007). Youth involvement in sport. Em P. Crocker
(Ed.), Sport Psychology: A Canadian perspective (pp. 270–298).

Davis, R. W. (2002). Inclusion through sports. Human Kinetics 1.

Dionigi, R. A., & Son, J. S. (2017). Introduction to critical perspectives
on physical activity, sport, play and leisure in later life.

Dworkin, J. B., Larson, R., & Hansen, D. (2003). Adolescents’ accounts
of growth experiences in youth activities. Journal of Youth and
Adolescence, 32(1), 17-26.

Eime, R. M., Young, J. A., Harvey, J. T., Charity, M. J., & Payne, W. R. (2013).
A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of
participation in sport for adults: informing the development of a
conceptual model of health through sport. International Journal of
Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(1), 135.

Ewing, M. E., & Seefeldt, V. (2002). Patterns of participation in American
agency-sponsored youth sports. Children and Youth in Sport: A
Biopsychosocial Perspective, 2, 39-56.

Fraser-Thomas, J., & Côté, J. (2009). Understanding adolescents’ positive
and negative developmental experiences in sport. The Sport
Psychologist, 23(1), 3-23.

Fraser-Thomas, J. L., Côté, J., & Deakin, J. (2005). Youth sports programs:
An avenue to foster positive youth development. Physical
Education & Sport Pedagogy, 10(1), 19-40.

Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2010). Breadth of extracurricular
participation and adolescent adjustment among African American
and European-American youth. Journal of Research on
Adolescence, 20(2), 307-333.

Forneris, T., Danish, S. J., & Scott, D. L. (2007). Setting Goals, Solving
Problems, and Seeking Social Support: Developing Adolescents
‘Abilities Through a Ld7e Skills Program. Adolescence, 42(165).

Galassi, J. (2017). Strengths-based school counseling: Promoting student
development and achievement. Routledge.
Gardner, M., Roth, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Adolescents’
participation in organized activities and developmental success
2 and 8 years after high school: Do sponsorship, duration, and
intensity matter? Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 814.

Gould, D., & Carson, S. (2008). Life skills development through sport:
Status and future directions. International Review of Sport and
Exercise Psychology, 1(1), 58-78.

Gucciardi, D. F., & Jones, M. I. (2012). Beyond optimal performance:
Mental toughness profiles and developmental success in
adolescent cricketers. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,
34(1), 16-36.

Hawkman, A. M., & Van Horn, S. E. (2019). What Does It Mean to Be
Patriotic? Policing Patriotism in Sports and Social Studies
Education. The Social Studies, 1-17.

Head, B. W., & Alford, J. (2015). Wicked problems: Implications for public
policy and management. Administration & Society, 47(6), 711-739.

Holt, N. L., Sehn, Z. L., Spence, J. C., Newton, A. S., & Ball, G. D. (2012).
Physical education and sports programs at an inner-city school:
exploring possibilities for positive youth development. Physical
Education & Sport Pedagogy, 17(1), 97-113.

Holt, N. L., Tink, L. N., Mandigo, J. L., & Fox, K. R. (2008). Do youth
learn life skills through their involvement in high school sports?
A case study. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue Canadienne
de l’éducation, 281-304.

Hord, S. M. (1997). Professional learning communities: Communities of
continuous inquiry and improvement. Issues about change, 6(1).
Jacobs, J. M., Lawson, M., Ivy, V. N., & Richards, K. A. R. (2017).
Enhancing the transfer of life skills from sport-based youth
development programs to school, family, and community
settings. Journal of Amateur Sport, 3(3), 20-43.

Jacobs, J. M., & Wright, P. M. (2018). Transfer of life skills in sport-based
youth development programs: A conceptual framework bridging
learning to application. Quest, 70(1), 81-99.

Jamil, A. (2009). Perception of Stakeholders Regarding Role of Sports in
The Development and Promotion of Appropriate Socio-Cultural
Traits Among its Participants. Dera Ismail Khan: Institute of
Education and Research, Gomal University.

Johnston, J., Harwood, C., & Minniti, A. M. (2013). Positive youth development
in swimming: Clarification and consensus of key psychosocial
assets. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 25(4), 392-411.

Jones, M.I., Lavallee, D. & Tod, D. (2011). Developing communication
and organization skills: The ELITE life skill reflective practice
program. The Sports Psychologist, 25, pp. 159-176.

Kwan, M., Bobko, S., Faulkner, G., Donnelly, P., & Cairney, J. (2014).
Sports participation, alcohol and illicit drug use among
adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of
longitudinal studies. Addictive Behaviors, 39(3), 497-506.

Lasch, C. (2018). The culture of narcissism: American life in an age of
diminishing expectations. USA: WW Norton & Company.

Lisha, N. E., & Sussman, S. (2010). Relationship between high school and
college sports participation with alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug
use: A review. Addictive Behaviors, 35(5), 399-407.

Mahoney, J. L. (2000). School extracurricular activity participation as a
moderator in the development of antisocial patterns. Child
Development, 71(2), 502-516.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data
analysis: A methods sourcebook. 3rd.

Muller, M. K., Phelps, E., Bowers, E. P., Agans, J. P., Urban, J. B., &
Lerner, R. M. (2011). Youth development program participation
and intentional self-regulation skills: Contextual and individual
bases of pathways to positive youth development. Journal of
Adolescence, 34(6), 1115-1125.

Rosinski, P. (2010). Coaching Across Cultures: New Tools for Leveraging
National, Corporate and Professional Differences. Hachette UK.
Smoll, F. L., & Smith, R. E. (2002). Children and youth in sport: A
biopsychological perspective. Dubuque, IO: Kental.

Super, S., Verkooijen, K., & Koelen, M. (2018). The role of community
sports coaches in creating optimal social conditions for life skill
development and transferability–a salutogenic perspective. Sport,
Education and Society, 23(2), 173-185.

Turnnidge, J., J. Côté, & D. J. Hancock. (2014). Positive Youth Development
from Sport to Life: Explicit or Implicit Transfer? Quest 66, 203–217.

Yang, X., Telama, R., Hirvensalo, M., Hintsanen, M., Hintsa, T., Pulkki-
Råback, L., & Raitakari, O. T. (2010). Sustained involvement in
youth sports activities predicts reduced chronic job strain in early
midlife. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine,
52(12), 1154-1159.

Walker, C. M. (2019). Developing work readiness; a Glasgow housing
association sports-based intervention. Managing Sport and
Leisure, 1-19.

Weiss, M. R., Stuntz, C. P., Bhalla, J. A., Bolter, N. D., & Price, M. S. (2013).
‘More than a game’: Impact of the First Tee life skills programme on
positive youth development: A Project introduction and Year 1 findings.
Qualitative Research In Sport, Exercise and Health, 5(2), 214-244.

Wilson, F. M. (2018). Organizational behaviour and work: a critical
introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Additional Files

Published

2019-07-15